Thinking allowed

Thinking about Yorkshire and Pudsey Surprise

I looked recently at the underlying structure of Cambridge Surprise on any number of bells (6 or more), and now I want to do the same with Yorkshire and Pudsey Surprise on any number (8 or more, since they are false on 6 bells, though still ringable as Yorkshire/Pudsey Block Delight Minor). This may well not directly help you to ring these methods, especially if you are just learning them. But understanding the structure of a method helps you know why you’re doing what you are doing, and what other bells are doing around you.

You might think Pudsey is a slightly odd choice to include immediately after Cambridge, but there’s a good reason why. In many ways it is the complement of Yorkshire: the changes each of these methods make, compared with Cambridge, are essentially identical except that they are made in different places.

The basic idea of Yorkshire and Pudsey is similar to Cambridge: the treble always treble-bob hunts in each dodging position (1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, etc); and wherever possible the other bells treble-bob hunt, but out of phase with the treble.

(See the article on Cambridge structure for a reminder of what it means to treble-bob hunt either in phase or out of phase with the treble.)

But Yorkshire and Pudsey each make one additional change to Cambridge. In each of them there is one bell that treble-bob hunts in phase with and adjacent to the treble, and the other bells have to deal with that bell as well as with the treble. The two methods differ only in which bell is in phase with the treble, and therefore in which places the extra adjustments must be made.

In Pudsey, it is the 3rd-place bell, which treble-bobs up to the back, dodging down with the treble and making places under the treble at the half-lead, and then dodging up with the treble and back down. Except when dodging with the treble at the back it is always one dodging position higher than the treble.

In Yorkshire, conversely, a bell treble-bobs down to the front, dodges up with the treble and makes 2nds place, and then dodges down with the treble and treble bobs out to the back. This bell treble bobs one dodging position lower than the treble. Whereas in Pudsey the work begins and ends when the treble is at the front, in Yorkshire it begins and ends when the treble is at the back, i.e. from the half-lead to the next half lead, and begins as the work of the 5th-place bell, which becomes the 2nd-place bell at the lead-end in the middle of this piece of work.

Yorkshire     Pudsey
half-lead end -----5-1 1-3----- lead end
----5-1- -1-3----
-----5-1 1-3-----
----5-1- -1-3----
treble-bobs down to the front ---5-1-- --1-3--- treble-bobs out to the back
--5-1--- ---1-3--
---5-1-- --1-3---
--5-1--- ---1-3--
-5-1---- ----1-3-
5-1----- -----1-3
-5-1---- ----1-3-
5-1----- -----1-3
51------ ------13
15------ ------31
where it dodges with the treble 51------ ------13 where it dodges with the treble
15------ ------31
makes 2nd place over the treble 12------ ------31 makes (n-1)th place under the treble
21------ ------13
and dodges down with the treble 12------ ------31 and dodges up with the treble
21------ ------13
2-1----- -----1-3
and treble bobs out -2-1---- ----1-3- and treble bobs down
2-1----- -----1-3
-2-1---- ----1-3-
--2-1--- ---1-3--
---2-1-- --1-3---
--2-1--- ---1-3--
---2-1-- --1-3---
----2-1- -1-3----
-----2-1 1-3-----
----2-1- -1-3----
-----2-1 1-3-----
----2--1 1--3----

These two pieces of work are mirror images of each other.

Next, let’s consider one small but important point. In Yorkshire, the bell treble-bobbing in phase with the treble is below the treble. The other bells must change their behaviour (compared with Cambridge) whenever they meet this bell, and by definition that can only happen below the treble, since that’s where this in-phase treble bobbing happens. Whenever a bell is above the treble it behaves in exactly the same fashion as it would in Cambridge. That’s why Yorkshire is “Cambridge above the treble”.

In Pudsey, on the other hand, the bell treble-bobbing in-phase with the treble is above the treble. The other bells must adjust their behaviour when they meet this bell above the treble, so the changes from Cambridge occur above the treble, but below the treble Pudsey is the same as Cambridge.

Now let’s turn to the other bells. They are trying to treble-bob out of phase, so when they encounter these two bells (the treble and the bell in-phase with the treble) then they must adapt their work.

Because the two bells are in adjacent positions, we will dodge with one and plain hunt past the other, though which of these comes first depends on where we meet them. And in addition, we must also make places adjacent to the dodge to switch phase.

There are two possibilities.

We can either plain hunt past a bell, dodge with the other, and then make places and (now back out of phase) dodge again. Or else we do the opposite of this: after dodging out of phase, we make places to get in phase, dodge with one of the in-phase bells and then plain hunt past the other.

Which we do depends on whether we have already dodged when we meet the first of the two bells.

If we meet the first of the two bells after we have dodged, then they have not yet dodged, so we must make places to wait for them, dodge, and then pass through the next dodging position to get back out of phase, and then resume out-of-phase treble bobbing. (In the following diagrams the treble and the in-phase bell are labelled p and q; in Pudsey p is the treble and q the in-phase bell; in Yorkshire p is the in-phase bell and q is the treble.)

when going down
to the front
when going out
to the back
p-q--x-- --x--p-q
-p-qx--- ---xp-q-
p-q-x--- ---x-p-q
-p-q-x-- --x-p-q-
--p-qx-- --xp-q--
---pxq-- --pxq---
--p-qx-- --xp-q--
---pxq-- --pxq---
---xp-q- -p-qx---
--x--p-q p-q--x--
-x--p-q- -p-q--x-
x----p-q p-q----x
-x----pq pq----x-
x-----qp qp-----x
Alternatively, if we meet the two bells before we have dodged, then they have already dodged and one of them is about to come into our current position so we must miss a dodge and go straight on to dodge with the other one, and having done so, make places to get back out of phase and resume out-of-phase treble-bobbing:
p-q--x-- --x--p-q
-p-qx--- ---xp-q-
--pxq--- ---pxq--
--xp-q-- --p-qx--
--pxq--- ---pxq--
--xp-q-- --p-qx--
--x-p-q- -p-q-x--
---x-p-q p-q-x---
---xp-q- -p-qx---
--x--p-q p-q--x--
---x--pq pq--x---
--x---qp qp---x--

There’s one more detail before we have enough information to understand each of these methods. If we are about to meet the treble or in-phase bell at the back, when we are in the topmost dodging position, then rather than missing a dodge or making places to get in phase we add an extra dodge. We’ve already seen this in Cambridge when we were about to meet the treble and we were at the back. Yorkshire here is identical to Cambridge (because we are above the treble), but in Pudsey this also applies when meeting the in-phase bell, so we must do these double dodges when about to meet that bell. And because the method is symmetrical, when we said “about to meet”, the same applies when “reaching the back having just met”, as it does in Cambridge.

In the full article, we’ll look at the details of Yorkshire, then at Pudsey, and then do a final comparison of the two methods.

Let’s look in more detail at how a couple of bells in Yorkshire Surprise Major meet the treble and the in-phase bell. The 4th place bell, and then the 8th, are sufficient to show what is going on. (The 7th and 6th place bells are respectively the mirrors of these.) First the 4th place bell:

12-4----

214----- 4 meets the treble so does places and dodges with treble (Yorkshire places in 3-4 down)
124-----
21-4----
2-14----
-241----
2-14----
-241---- 4 completes the dodge with the treble and meets the 2, so passes it, missing a dodge in 1-2 down
-42-1--- which puts it back out of phase, so it can treble bob with the other out-of-phase bells
4--2-1--
4-2-1--- 4 starts treble-bobbing up, from 1-2
-4-2-1--
4---251-
-4--52-1
--4-251- 4 dodges in 3-4
---452-1
--4-25-1
---4521- 4 encounters the 5 above it (the in-phase bell)
---425-1 so makes places and dodges up with it (Yorkshire places in 3-4 up)
--4-521-
--45-1--
--541---
--45-1--
--541---
-5-14--- having dodged with the in-phase 5, 4 meets the treble and plain hunts past it
5-1--4--
-5-1--4- which puts 4 back out of phase, so it resumes treble-bobbing with the other bells
5-1----4
51----4-
15-----4
51-----4
15----4-
15-----4 4 becomes the 8th place bell

And continuing as the 8th place bell:

15-----8

21----8- 8 goes down to 5-6 and dodges
12---8--
21--8---
2-1--8--
-2-18--- where it encounters the treble,
2-1-8--- so make places and dodge with the treble (Yorkshire places in 5-6 down)
-2-1-8--
--2-18--
---281--
--2-18--
---281-- having dodged with the treble, 8 encounters the 2 (treble-bobbing up in phase)
---8251- so passes it, missing a dodge, which puts it back out of phase
--8-52-1
-8--251- 8 resumes out-of-phase treble-bobbing, dodging 1-2 down
8---52-1
-8--25-1
8---521-
8---25-1 8 dodges 1-2 up
-8--521-
8--5-1--
-85-1--- and meets the in-phase 5
-8-5-1-- so makes places (2nds, 1st)
8-5-1--- to get into phase with the 5
85-1---- and dodges with the in-phase 5 (Yorkshire places in 1-2 up)
581-----
85-1----
581----- 8 meets the treble so hunts past it, missing the dodge in 3-4 to get back out of phase
518-----
15-8----
51--8--- 8 resumes treble-bobbing out of phase
15---8--
15--8--- 8 becomes the 5th place bell

There are some other consequences of this. When learning Yorkshire after Cambridge, it is common to consider the Cambridge frontwork (either side of making 2nds place over the treble at the lead end) as divided in two and assigned to the 8th and the 6th place bells. But it is better, in Yorkshire, to consider it as Yorkshire places up or down in 1-2 rather than as half the Cambridge frontwork.

We can then see that Yorkshire places are made alternately up and down. This begins with the work of the 6th place bell, where all the up places include a dodge with the treble, but all the down places involve a dodge with the in-phase bell. In Major the work is: the lowest set of places down, in 1-2 with the in-phase bell, then 5-6 places up with the treble, 3-4 places down with the in-phase bell, and finally 3-4 places up with the treble, becoming the 3rd place bell. Each of these sets of Yorkshire places is preceded by a missed dodge, where you pass the treble if you’re going down, and the in-phase bell if you’re going up.

After doing the backwork as 3rd place bell you become the 4th place bell, beginning immediately with 3-4 places down with the treble, 3-4 places up with the in-phase bell, 5-6 places down with the treble and 1-2 places up with the in-phase bell. Each set of places is followed by a missed dodge where you pass the treble or the in-phase bell. The work ends with a 5-6 up dodge, becoming the 5th place bell.

This can be generalized to higher numbers of bells. Beginning with the 6th place bell, places down are with the in-phase bell, starting in 1-2 down and moving one dodging position higher and earlier each time we come down to the front: so 1-2 down the first time, then 3-4 down, then 5-6 down etc. Between each of these places down we have to do places up with the treble, beginning in the highest internal position (5-6 in Major, 7-8 in Royal, 9-10 in Maximus, and so on) and moving one dodging position lower and earlier each time we leave the front, finishing with 3-4 places up.


In the next section, we examine Pudsey.

Pudsey is a little different, partly because it is “Cambridge below the treble”. Yorkshire, remember, is “Cambridge above the treble”, and this means that at every lead-end, when (by definition) the treble is leading, all the other bells are above the treble. They are therefore doing the same work as they would in Cambridge, and they continue doing that until they each pass the treble, at which point they are in the same position as they would be in Cambridge. And as the method is symmetrical, then similarly as they pass above the treble and approach the lead end then too each bell is in the same place as it would be in Cambridge. So when the 4th-place bell, for example, having done its Yorkshire work below the treble, passes the treble to go above it, it does so in exactly the same place as the 4th-place bell does in Cambridge, and so it does the work of the 4th-place bell in Cambridge.

Pudsey, however, is “Cambridge below the treble”. So at the lead-end, every bell is above the treble and doing something different from Cambridge work, and each bell will pass the treble at a different point from when it passes the treble in Cambridge. Having passed the treble it rings Cambridge — but not as the same place bell as it is in Pudsey. For example, the 4th-place bell in Pudsey completes a triple dodge in 3-4 down and then immediately passes below the treble. It is in the position that the 6th-place bell in Cambridge would be, and that is the work it does below the treble, leading and then treble-bobbing up to 5-6 where it does places to dodge with the treble and pass above it. It’s not particularly helpful, especially when learning the method, to remember that when you’re the 4th-place bell in Pudsey that you do the work of the Cambridge 6th-place bell when it has passed the treble.

Now we’ll look at the work of each of the bells above 3rd place in Pudsey and see how they are affected as they meet the in-phase bell and the treble.

1-3----8 8th-place bell

-1-3--8-
1-3--8--
-1-38--- 8 meets the in-phase bell and must pass it
--183---
--81-3-- 8 meets the treble so must dodge with it
--183---
--81-3-- 8 does places to get back out of phase and dodges again
--8-1-3-
---8-1-3
---81-3- keep treble bobbing out of phase (this is Cambridge 4th-place bell work)
--8--1-3
---8--13
--8---31
-8----13
8-----31
-8----31
8-----13
8-----31
-8----13
8----1-3
-8--1-3-
--8--1-3
---81-3- meet the treble before dodging, so pass it
---183-- and meet the in-phase bell so dodge with it
--1-38--
---183--
--1-38--
-1-3-8-- and make places to get back out of phase
1-3-8---
-1-38--- and keep treble-bobbing out of phase
1-3--8--
1--38--- becoming 5th place bell

1-3---7- 7th-place bell

-1-3---7
1-3----7
-1-3--7-
--1-3--7 meet the in-phase bell, so add an extra dodge
---1-37-
--1-3--7
---1-37-
----173- and meet the treble so dodge and do places
----71-3
----173-
----71-3
----7-13
-----731
-----713
----7-31
-----731
----7-13 keep treble-bobbing out of phase (this is Cambridge 8th-place bell)
---7--31
--7---13
---7-1-3
--7-1-3-
-7---1-3
7---1-3-
-7-1-3--
7-1-3---
7--1-3--
-71-3--- pass the treble in 2-3 and meet the in-phase bell, so must triple-dodge with it
-173----
1-37----
-173----
1-37----
1-73---- becoming the in-phase bell (with another dodge to do in 3-4 up)

1-3--6-- 6th place bell

-1-36--- meet the in-phase bell after dodging, so make places to get in-phase and dodge with it
1-3-6---
-1-3-6--
--1-36--
---163--
--1-36--
---163--
---61-3- and immediately pass the treble
--6--1-3 and miss a dodge to get back out of phase (this is Cambridge 7th place bell)
-6--1-3-
6----1-3
-6----13
6-----31
6-----13
-6----31
6-----31
-6----13
--6---31
---6--13
--6--1-3
---61-3- meet the treble after dodging so make places and dodge with the treble
---6-1-3
--6-1-3-
--61-3--
--163---
--61-3--
--163--- and pass the in-phase bell
-1-36---
1-3--6-- and miss a dodge to get back out of phase
-1-3--6-
1-3----6
1--3--6- dodge back, becoming the 7th-place bell

1-3-5--- 5th place bell

-1-3-5-- treble-bob out of phase to the back
1-3---5-
-1-3---5
--1-3-5-
---1-3-5
--1-3-5- in-phase bell is coming uo behind so add an extra dodge to wait for it
---1-3-5
----1-35
-----153 and dodge down with the in-phase bell
----1-35
-----153 meet the treble, so pass it
-----513
----5-31 (and ring Cambridge below the treble, as 5th place bell)
---5--13
--5---31
---5--31
--5---13
-5----31
5-----13
-5---1-3
5---1-3-
5----1-3
-5--1-3-
5--1-3--
-51-3---
-5-1-3--
5-1-3---
51-3----
153-----
51-3----
153-----
15-3---- make 2nds place over the treble and become the 2nd-place bell

The 4th-place bell is the reverse of the 7th, and the 2nd a reverse of the 5th.


And finally, we lay out the blue line for Yorkshire and Pudsey Surprise Major, side by side. From this can be seen that “Pudsey is not Yorkshire” or rather, “Pudsey is not-Yorkshire”. That is, beginning with the work of the 6th-place bell, and continuing until you become the 3rd-place bell, when you make places in Yorkshire, you plain hunt in Pudsey, and when you plain hunt in Yorkshire you make places in Pudsey. And similarly, after completing the 3rd-place bell, for the work that begins with the 4th-place bell, continuing until you become the 5th place bell.

Yorkshire     Pudsey
12------ 12------
 
21------ 21------
12------ 12------
21------ 21------
2-1----- 2-1-----
-2-1---- -2-1----
2-1----- -21-----
-2-1---- 2--1----
--2-1--- -2--1---
---2-1-- 2----1--
--2-1--- 2---1---
---2-1-- -2---1--
----2-1- 2-----1-
-----2-1 -2-----1
----2-1- --2---1-
-----2-1 ---2---1
----2--1 --2----1
-----21- ---2--1-
----2--1 ----2--1
-----21- -----21-
-----12- -----12-
----1--2 ----1--2
-----12- -----12-
----1--2 ----1--2
---1--2- ---1---2
--1----2 --1---2-
---1---2 ---1---2
--1---2- --1---2-
-1-----2 -1-----2
1-----2- 1-----2-
-1---2-- -1---2--
1---2--- 1---2---
1----6-- 1----6--
 
-1--6--- -1--6--- 3-4 d: Y plain hunt; P places
1--6---- 1---6---
-16----- -1---6--
-61----- --1--6--
6--1---- ---16---
-61----- --1--6--
6--1---- ---16--- Y places in 1-2; P plain hunt
6---1--- ---61---
-6---1-- --6--1--
-6--1--- -6--1---
6----1-- 6----1--
-6----1- -6----1-
6------1 6------1 both: lead and treble-bob
6-----1- 6-----1-
-6-----1 -6-----1
6------1 6------1
-6----1- -6----1-
--6----1 --6----1 3-4 u: Y plain hunt; P places
---6--1- ---6--1-
----61-- --6--1-- 5-6 u: Y places
----16-- ---61---
----61-- ---6-1--
----16-- --6-1---
---1-6-- --61----
--1-6--- --16----
---16--- --61----
--1--6-- --16----
-1--6--- -1--6--- 5-6 u: P plain hunt
1----6-- 1----6--
-1----6- -1----6-
1------6 1------6
1-----7- 1-----7-
 
-1-----7 -1-----7
1------7 1------7
-1----7- -1----7-
--1----7 --1----7
---1--7- ---1--7-
--1--7-- --1----7 8-7 d: P extra dodge
---17--- ---1--7- 6-5 d: Y plain hunt
---71--- ----17--
--7--1-- ----71-- 6-5 d: P places
---71--- ----17-- 4-3 d: Y places
--7--1-- ----71--
--7---1- ----7-1-
---7---1 -----7-1
---7--1- -----71-
--7----1 ----7--1
---7---1 -----7-1
--7---1- ----7-1- 4-3 d: treble-bob
-7-----1 ---7---1
7-----1- --7---1-
-7---1-- ---7-1--
7---1--- --7-1---
7----1-- -7---1--
-7--1--- 7---1---
--71---- -7-1----
--17---- 7-1-----
--71---- 7--1----
--17---- -71-----
-1-7---- -17-----
1-7----- 1--7----
-17----- -17-----
1--7---- 1--7----
1-3----- 1-3-----
 
-1-3---- -1-3----
1---3--- 1-3-----
-1---3-- -1-3----
--1-3--- --1-3---
---1-3-- ---1-3--
--1---3- --1-3---
---1---3 ---1-3--
----1-3- ----1-3-
-----1-3 -----1-3
----1-3- ----1-3-
-----1-3 -----1-3
------13 ------13
------31 ------31
------13 ------13
------31 ------31
------31 ------31
------13 ------13
------31 ------31
------13 ------13
-----1-3 -----1-3
----1-3- ----1-3-
-----1-3 -----1-3
----1-3- ----1-3-
---1---3 ---1-3--
--1---3- --1-3---
---1-3-- ---1-3--
--1-3--- --1-3---
-1---3-- -1-3----
1---3--- 1-3-----
-1-3---- -1-3----
1-3----- 1-3-----
1--4---- 1--4----
 
-14----- -14-----
1-4----- 1--4----
-1-4---- -14-----
--14---- -41-----
--41---- 4--1----
--14---- 4-1-----
--41---- -4-1----
-4--1--- 4---1---
4----1-- -4---1--
4---1--- --4-1---
-4---1-- ---4-1--
4-----1- --4---1-
-4-----1 ---4---1
--4---1- ----4-1-
---4---1 -----4-1
--4----1 ----4--1
---4--1- -----41-
---4---1 -----4-1
--4---1- ----4-1-
--4--1-- ----41--
---41--- ----14--
--4--1-- ----41--
---41--- ----14--
---14--- ---1--4-
--1--4-- --1----4
---1--4- ---1--4-
--1----4 --1----4
-1----4- -1----4-
1------4 1------4
-1-----4 -1-----4
1-----4- 1-----4-
1------8 1------8
 
-1----8- -1----8-
1----8-- 1----8--
-1--8--- -1--8---
--1--8-- --18----
---18--- --81----
--1-8--- --18----
---1-8-- --81----
----18-- --8-1---
----81-- ---8-1--
----18-- ---81---
----81-- --8--1--
---8--1- ---8--1-
--8----1 --8----1
-8----1- -8----1-
8------1 8------1
-8-----1 -8-----1
8-----1- 8-----1-
8------1 8------1
-8----1- -8----1-
8----1-- 8----1--
-8--1--- -8--1---
-8---1-- --8--1--
8---1--- ---81---
8--1---- ---18---
-81----- --1--8--
8--1---- ---18---
-81----- --1--8--
-18----- -1---8--
1--8---- 1---8---
-1--8--- -1--8---
1----8-- 1----8--
1---5--- 1---5---
 
-1---5-- -1---5--
1-----5- 1-----5-
-1-----5 -1-----5
--1---5- --1---5-
---1---5 ---1---5
--1----5 --1---5-
---1--5- ---1---5
----1--5 ----1--5
-----15- -----15-
----1--5 ----1--5
-----15- -----15-
-----51- -----51-
----5--1 ----5--1
-----51- ---5--1-
----5--1 --5----1
-----5-1 ---5---1
----5-1- --5---1-
-----5-1 -5-----1
----5-1- 5-----1-
---5-1-- -5---1--
--5-1--- 5---1---
---5-1-- 5----1--
--5-1--- -5--1---
-5-1---- 5--1----
5-1----- -51-----
-5-1---- -5-1----
5-1----- 5-1-----
51------ 51------
15------ 15------
51------ 51------
15------ 15------
12------ 12------

Leave a Reply

Your e-mail address will not be published. Required fields are marked *